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Return of Individual Results

Focus Area: Current Project

Focus Area: Transparency

Participants desire to receive both individual and aggregate research data from clinical studies in which they participated. For the return of individual results (including routine results, incidental findings, individual endpoints and study arm information, and exploratory findings) standard guidelines and criteria to facilitate this process have been lacking.

To address returning individual results, the MRCT Center convened a multi-stakeholder group in December of 2015 to develop recommendations for returning individual results, with special subgroups dedicated to (1) addressing genomic results and (2) developing a survey to investigate the current status of communication between sponsor, investigator, treating physician, and study participant. The group considered different data types that may be returned in a research study and recommended which data types to return, at a minimum, in a guidance document and toolkit released in 2017.

As part of the MRCT Center’s ongoing process of reviewing and revising projects to maintain their relevance and applicability, and ensure they are responsive to evolving industry needs, the subject of returning individual results is currently being revisited. A multi-stakeholder taskforce was convened in January of 2021 to update and revise the guidance document and toolkit as necessary. If you have experience to share, please contact

For return of aggregate results, please see the MRCT Center project Return of Aggregate Results.

Current status: Dissemination and Revision

Impact: Returning individual results honors the essential contributions and voluntarism of study participants in clinical trials, while improving the transparency of those trials.


Key project Milestones:

  • March 2022: Launch of Return of Individual Results (IRR) website
  • January 2021: Launched Return of Individual Results Project Update/Revision Taskforce
  • Summer 2020: Review and revision process initiated
  • December 2017: Return of Individual Results to Participants Recommendations Document Version 1.2 and Return of Individual Results to Participants Toolkit Version 1.2 released and “Return of Individual Results to Participants: Principles” Nov 2017 version released; results from Task Force on Communication of Research Results survey were presented at MRCT Center Annual Meeting.
  • June 2017: “Return of Individual Results to Participants: Principles” Version 2.1 released
  • February 2017: “Return of Individual Results to Participants: Principles” released
  • January 2017: Genomics Sub-Group launched to expand on genetic/genomic sections of Individual Return of Results Guidance Document and Use-Case Sub-Group launched to develop simulations to test the workgroup output in real life situations
  • December 2016: Draft Recommendations Document, Toolkit and Principles presented at MRCT Center Annual Meeting
  • August 2016: “Return of Individual Results: Principles and Approach” available for comments
  • April 2016: Task Force on Communication of Research Results launched to (1) understand current practices in communication of research results to clinical trial participants and (2) develop recommendations to guide communication processes between clinical investigators, primary care physicians, and study participants
  • December 2015: Launched Return of Individual Results Working Group

Related external link:

SACHRP Recommendation: Return of Individual Results and Special Consideration of Issues Arising from Amendments of HIPAA and CLIA.

The original project (2015-2017) was co-chaired by: 

  • Barbara E. Bierer, MD. Faculty Director, MRCT Center
  • Debra Mathews, PhD, MA. Assistant Director for Science Programs, Johns Hopkins
  • David Pulford, PhD. Genetics Therapy Area Head, GSK
  • Sandra Prucka, MS. Clinical Innovations, Eli Lilly and Company

The taskforce for the project update (2020-current) includes:

  • Barbara E. Bierer, Faculty Director, MRCT Center
  • Sylvia Baedorf Kassis, Program Manager, MRCT Center
  • Linda Coleman, Director of Human Research Protection Program, Yale University
  • Anna Kang Liu, Director, Pre-Approval Access and Bioethics, Genentech
  • David Leventhal, Senior Director, Clinical Trial Experience, Pfizer
  • Megan McBride, Associate Director, Janssen Clinical Innovation
  • Nancy Levitan Poorvu, Patient Advocate
  • Sandra Prucka, Director of Genetic Counseling for Clinical Services, Asst. Professor of Clinical Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University
  • Kate Robins, Patient Advocate
  • Jessica Scott, Head of R&D Patient Engagement, Takeda
  • Jamie Tyrone, Patient Advocate
  • Carol Weil, Program Director for Ethical and Regulatory Affairs, National Cancer Institute
  • Sarah White, Executive Director, MRCT Center

Project Manager:

  • Lisa Murray, MPH, Project Manager, MRCT Center